Despite the fact that minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) machining produces almost similar cutting performance to conventional flood supply machining while using much less metal working fluid (MWF), it has not been fully utilized in industry due to lack of understanding of the fundamental process physics. To take full advantage of MQL machining and expand its applicability, an understanding of its tribological behavior is critical. Hence, in this study, the adsorption characteristics of MQL media during orthogonal cutting was investigated using two experimental setups; one in a high vacuum chamber with a mass spectrometer to observe mass changes of MQL media during cutting, and another setup in an atmospheric chamber where the supply of MQL media can be controlled. The former is mainly for analysis of the tribological behavior of MQL media, and the latter for cutting performance monitoring. It was found that the adsorption amount of MQL media was closely related to lubrication behavior. Oxygen in MQL supply plays a significant role in lubrication. Ultrasonic vibration cutting tests with MQL were conducted for further understanding of lubrication mechanism.