From Design for Manufacturing (DFM) to Manufacturing for Design (MFD) via Hybrid Manufacturing and Smart Factory: A Review and Perspective of Paradigm Shift

Manufacturing paradigms have historically been shaped by social, economic, and technological aspect, including limitations and needs. Design for manufacturing (DFM) has been the main paradigm for last three decades since design is defined by the limitations of available manufacturing processes. Since reducing the time required for the development of new products has been one of the key issues for businesses, removing the gap between designers and manufacturers has been one of today’s main goals. Many methods were developed to reduce this gap including information and communication technologies (ICT). However, current issues have been shifting towards design-related issues such that researchers have been trying to make products desired by the customers rather than that which is cheaper to manufacture. In this article, hybrid manufacturing (HM) and the concept of smart factory are introduced as key technologies for the future paradigm of manufacturing: Manufacturing for Design (MFD). Issues related to the development of HM process and examples of HM process are explained, and the importance of smart factories for the implementation of MFD is shown. Finally, future trends of HM and smart factory are predicted at the end of this article.